LRO (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter)
The primary objective of LRO is to conduct investigations that prepare for future lunar exploration. Specifically LRO will scout for safe and compelling landing sites, locate potential resources (with special attention to the possibility of water ice) and characterize the effects of prolonged exposure to the lunar radiation environment.
Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS)
The main LCROSS mission objective was to explore the presence of water ice in a permanently shadowed crater near a lunar polar region.
The spacecraft's primary mission is to test new technologies, including an ion engine and minaturized electronics.
Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL)
2011 - GRAIL mission is a Discovery Program mission which will use high-quality gravity field mapping of the Moon to determine its interior structure.
Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE)
2012 - Determine the global density, composition, and time variability of the fragile lunar atmosphere before it is perturbed by further human activity.